A glossary of shipping related terms.
AA - always afloat
AAAA - always afloat, always accessible
ABS - America Bureau of Shipping (U.S. classification society/standard)
Abt - about
A/C - air changes (see elvent below) or account
A/D/A (or ADA) - all details about
Adcom - address commission
AG - Arabian gulf
ARA - Amsterdam-Rotterdam-Antwerp
ARAG - Amsterdam-Rotterdam-Antwerp-Ghent
AFSPS - arrival first sea pilot station
Aft - at or towards the stern of a ship
Aground - when the ship touches bottom
AGW - all going well
AHL - Australian hold ladders (ladders in the ships holds meeting the requirements of the Australian trades unions)
Amidships - at or towards to centre of a ship
AOB - as on board
AP - additional premium (insurance) or all purposes
APS - arrival pilot station
Arb - arbitration
ATDNSHINC - any time day/night Sundays & holidays included
ATS - all time saved (laytime)
ATUTC - actual time used to count (in relation to laytime)
AWRI - additional war risk insurance
AWIWL - always within Institute Warranty Limits
BAF - bunker adjustment factor
Bale capacity - cubic capacity of a cargo hold or holds measured as if cargo of bales/pallets
Ballast - weight taken on board by a ship other than cargo for stability purposes when empty or for making the ship lower in the water (ballast is usually sea water)
Ballast bonus - a bonus paid to the ship owner for compensation for ballasting the ship to a delivery place
BBB - before breaking bulk (meaning prior to the commencement of discharging from the ship)
BC (or B/C) - bulkcarrier
Beam or BM - the extreme width of a ship
BENDS - both ends (i.e. load and discharge ports)
BHF - Bulk Harmless Fertiliser
BIMCO - Baltic and International Maritime Council
B/L - bill of lading (document signed by the carrier, which acts as a receipt and evidence of title to the cargo)
BN - booking note (sometimes issued as a contract for a simple voyage)
BOB - bunkers on board
BOffer - best offer
Bow - the forward part of a ship
Brokerage - commission payable to the ship broker
BSS - basis
BT - berth terms
Bulkhead - vertical partition in the ship separating compartments
Bunkers - name given for the fuels used to propel a vessel
BWAD - brackish water arrival draft (brackish is neither fresh water or salt water)
CBM - cubic meters.
CBFT (or CUFT or CFT) - cubic feet
CIF - cost, insurance and freight
CFR (or C&F) - cost and freight
CHABE - charterer’s agents both ends
CHOPT - charterers option
COA - contract of affreightment – a contract (charter party) for a specific number of voyages
COB - close of business
COGSA - carriage of goods by sea act
COLREG - prevention of collisions at sea convention
CONCS - concentrates
CONS consumption – quantity of fuel used by the ships engine
COP - custom of (the) port
CP (or C/P) - charter party
CQD - customary quick despatch
CST - centistokes (measure of the viscosity of fuel oil
C/V/E - cables/victualling/entertainment
DA (or D/A) - disbursement account
DAP - Di-Ammonium Phosphate
DAPS - days all purposes (the total number of days for loading & discharging)
DD - drydock
DEM - demurrage
DES - despatch
DDFRT - deadfreight
DHDATSBE - demurrage half despatch on all time saved both ends
DHDLTSBE - demurrage half despatch on all laytime saved both ends
DHDWTSBE - demurrage half despatch on working time saved both ends
DISCH - discharge
DLOSP - dropping last outward sea pilot
DOC - document of compliance (under ISM code see below)
DOP - dropping outward pilot
DOT - department of transport
DNRSAOCLONL - discountless and non returnable ship and/or cargo lost or not lost
DNV - Det Norske Veritas (Norwegian classification society/standard)
DRAFT - depth to which a ship is immersed in water
DUNNAGE - materials, often timber or matting, placed among cargo for separation and increased stability or to protect the tank tops
DWAT or DWT - deadweight – the weight of the cargo, stores, bunkers, water.
EIU - even if used
ELVENT - electrically ventilated
ETA - estimated time of arrival
ETB - estimated time of berthing
ETC -estimated time of completion
ETD -estimated time of departure
ETS -estimated time of sailing
Expload - expected to load
FAC -fast as can
FAS - free alongside
FEU - forty foot or equivalent unit (container)
FD - free discharge or free despatch
FDD - freight, deadfreight & demurrage
FDES - free despatch
FDEOSDNRSAOCLONL - freight deemed earned on shipment , discountless & Non returnable, ship &/or cargo lost or not lost
FHEX - Fridays & holidays excluded
FHINC - Fridays & holidays included
FILO - free in/liner out
FIO - free in/out – the ship owner does not incur the loading and discharging costs
FIOS - free in/out and stowed. As per FIO but owner also free to stowage expenses
FIOST - free in/out, stowed and trimmed but can also mean: free in/out and spout trimmed
FIOT - free in/out and trimmed
FLT - full liner terms
FO - free out but can also mean fuel oil
FOB - free onboard
FOW - first open water
FP - free pratique
FRT - freight
FWAD - fresh water arrival draft
FWDD - fresh water departure draft
FYG - for your guidance
FYI - for your information
GA - general average
GA plan - general arrangement plan
GLS (GLESS) - gearless (ship having no cranes or derricks)
GNCN - gencon
GN (or GR) - grain (cubic capacity)
GO - gas oil
GR (or Georot) - geographical rotation
Grain capacity - cubic capacity of a cargo hold or holds measured for bulk cargoes
GRT - gross registered tonnage
GSB - good and safe berth
GSP - good and safe port
GTEE - guarantee
HA - hatch
H and M - hull and machinery
HBF - harmless bulk fertiliser
HBI - Hot Briquetted Iron
HHDW - heavy, handy, deadweight (type of scrap)
HMS - heavy melting scrap
HO - holds (compartment below deck for cargo)
HRC - Hot Rolled Coils
HSS - Heavy grain Sorghums and Soyas
HTUTC - half time used to count (in relation to laytime)
HW - high water.
IACS - International Association of Classification Societies
IFO - Intermediate Fuel Oil
IGS - inert gas system
ILOHC - In lieu of hold cleaning (on redelivering a vessel)
ILOW - in lieu of weighing (usually expressed as a percentage, for example 0.5% of freight – for cargoes with high moisture content where the freight is paid on the bill of lading quantity as the delivered weight will be less as the moisture content will reduce during the voyage)
IMO - International Maritime Organisation
INDIC - indication
INL - international navigational limits
ITF - international transport workers federation (crew trade union)
ISM - international safety management
ISPS - international ships and port security system
IU - if used
IWL - Institute Warranty Limits
LAYCAN (also L/C) - laydays and cancelling dates
LAYTIME - time at charterers disposal for the purpose of loading &/or discharging
LBP - length between perpendiculars (of a ship)
LIFO - liner in free out
LMAA - London Maritime Arbitrators Association
LOA - length over all (of the ship)
LOC - letter of credit
LOF - lloyd’s open form
LOI - letter of indemnity
LOW - last open water
LS (or LSUM) - lumpsum
LSFO - low sulphur fuel oil
LT - liner terms – also can mean long tons (2240 lbs)
LTS - laytime saved (laytime)
MARPOL - convention for prevention of pollution from ships
MDO - marine diesel oil
MGO - marine gas oil
MIDSHIP - approximately equidistant from bow and stern of ship
MIN/MAX - minimum/maximum (usually cargo quantity or time charter period)
MOA - memorandum of agreement
MOLCHOPT - more or less in charterers option
MOLOO - more or less in owners option
MOP - Muriate of Potash
MT - metric ton (tonne) 1000 kilos
MV - motor vessel
NAABSA - not always afloat but safely aground
NCB - national cargo bureau
NK - Nippon Kaiji Kyokai (Japanese classification Society/standard)
NON REVERSIBLE - refers to laytime – the time allowed for loading respectively discharging cannot be computed together
NOR - notice of readiness
NRT - net registered tonnage
NYPE - new york produce exchange
OO - owners option
OBO - ore/bulk/oil (vessel)
OWS - owners
P&I - protection & indemnity (insurance)
PDPR - per day or pro rata
PHPD - per hatch per day
PICO - port in charterer’s option
PUS - past us
PWH - per workable hatch
PWHPD - per workable hatch per day
PWWD - per weather working day
QWT - quay weight and tonnage dues (German ports)
RCVR - receiver
Reversible - laytime for loading and discharging can be computed together
ROB - remaining onboard (bunkers)
RORO - roll on and roll off (vehicle carrier)
SATPM - Saturday, after noon
SB - safe berth
SD - single deck (vessel)
SDBC - single deck bulkcarrier
SG - specific gravity
SP - safe port
SELFD (or) SELFDIS - self discharge (vessel)
SF - stowage factor (of cargo)
SHINC or SC - Sundays & holidays included
SHEX or SX - Sundays & holidays excluded
SMC - safety management certificate (under ISM code see above)
SOF - statement of facts
SOLAS - Safety of Life at Sea convention
S/R/B/L - signing and releasing Bills of Lading
SS - special survey
SSHEX (or SATSHEX) - Saturdays, Sundays & holidays excluded
SSHINC (or SATSHINC) - Saturdays, Sundays & holidays included
SSW - summer salt water
ST - short ton (2000 lbs)
STBC - self trimming bulk carrier
Describes a bulk carrier that is capable of loading a full cargo of free-flowing grain without trimming (other than spout/loader trimming) to the cargo after the completion of loading.
This is a customary term in charter negotiations but when chartering, the term should not normally be used without offering additional explanation of exactly what is meant.
SWAD - salt water arrival draft
SWDD - salt water departure draft
SWL - safe working load
TEU - twenty foot equivalent unit (containers)
TBN - to be named or to be nominated or to be narrowed
TBRN - to be re-named
TC - time charter
TCP - time charter party
TCT - time charter trip
TFW - tropical fresh water
TIP - taking inward pilot
TPC - tons per centimetre (immersion)
TPI - tons per inch (immersion)
TSP - Triple Super Phosphate
TT - turntime
TTBE - turntime both ends
TTL - total
TW - tween deck (vessel)
USAC - United States Atlantic Coast
USC - unless sooner commenced
USG - United States Gulf (of Mexico)
USNH - United States north of Cape Hateras
UU - unless used
UUIWCATUTC - unless used in which case actual time used to count (in relation to laytime)
WCCON - whether customs cleared or not
WECON - whether entered customs or not
WIBON - whether in berth or not
WIFPON - whether in free pratique or not
WIPON - whether in port or not
WLTHC - water line to top of hatch coming (the distance)
WMT - Wet Metric Tons (Being the weight of cargo loaded before the voyage commences typically for Iron Ore and Concentrates)
WOG - without guarantee
WP - weather permitting
WTS - working time saved (laytime)
WWD - weather working day
WRIC - wire rods in coils
WW - world wide
WWF - Waterside Workers Federation (Australian Union)
WWR - when and where ready
WWWW - wibon, wccon (or wecon), wifpon, wipon (see above)
Aframax: Crude oil tanker or product tanker too large to pass through the Panama Canal and with a capacity of from 80,000 to 120,000 dwt.
Back-haul: The leg of a trade route that has the lowest container volumes is often called ’back-haul, whereas the return leg is often referred to as ‘head-haul’.
Barrel: A volumetric unit measure for crude oil and petroleum products equivalent to 42 U.S. gallons, or approximately 159 litres.
BHP: Break Horse Power. The amount of engine horsepower.
Brent: Term used for crude oil from the North Sea. Brent oil is traded on the International Petroleum Exchange in London, and the price of Brent is used as a benchmark for several other types of European oil.
Bulk vessel: Description of vessels transporting large cargo quantities, including coal, iron ore, steel, corn, gravel, oil, gas, etc.
Bunker: Fuel for vessels.
Call on OPEC: Defined as total global petroleum demand less non-OPEC supply less OPEC natural gas liquid supply.
Capesize: Dry bulk carrier of more than approximately 100,000 dwt; too large to pass through the Panama Canal.
Cu.M: Cubic Meter.
Ceu: Car equivalent unit. Unit of measure indicating the car-carrying capacity of a vessel.
Cgt: Compensated Gross Tonnage. International unit of measure that facilitates a comparison of different shipyards’ production regardless of the types of vessel produced.
Chemical tanker: DSF’s definition: IMO I or IMO II tanker with stainless steel, zinc, epoxy or Marineline coated tanks.
Clarksons: British ship brokering and research company. www.clarksons.net
Clean products: Refers to light, refined oil products such as jet fuel, gasoline and naphtha.
CoA: Contract of Affreightment. Contract between a shipping company and a shipper concerning the freight of a predetermined volume of goods within a given period of time and/or at given intervals.
Coating: The internal coatings applied to the tanks of a product or chemical tanker. Coated tanks enable the ship to transport corrosive refined oil or chemical products and it facilitates extensive cleaning of the tanks, which may be required in the transportation of certain product types.
Deep sea: Refers to trading routes longer than 3,000 nautical miles.
Deep Sea, chemical: A chemical tanker larger than or equal to 20,000 dwt.
Dirty products: Refers to heavy oils such as crude oil or refined oil products such as fuel oil, diesel oil or bunker oil.
Drewry: Drewry Shipping Consultants Ltd. British shipping and transport research company. www.drewry.co.uk
Dwt: Dead Weight Tons. Indication of a vessel’s cargo carrying capacity (including bunkers, ballast, water and food supplies, crew and passengers).
Dynamic Positioning: Special instruments on board that in conjunction with bow thrusters and main propellers enable a ship to position itself in a fixed position in relation to the seabed.
EIA: Energy Information Administration. A subsidiary of the US Department of Energy. www.eia.doe.gov
E&P: Exploration and Production.
Feeder: Small container carrier with a capacity of less than 500 teu.
Feedermax: Small container carrier with a capacity of 500-1000 teu.
FPSO: Floating Production Storage Off-loading unit. Vessel used in the offshore industry to process and store oil from an underwater (sub-sea) installation.
Front-haul: The leg of a trade route that has the highest cargo volumes is often called ‘front-haul’ whereas the return leg is often referred to as ‘back-haul’.
Geared: Indicates that a vessel is equipped with a crane or other lifting device.
Gearless: Indicates that a vessel is not equipped with a crane or other lifting device.
Global order cover: Global order is the global orderbook divided by annual yard capacity.
Gt: Gross Tons. Unit of 100 cubic feet or 2,831 cubic meters, used in arriving at the calculation of gross tonnage.
Handy, container: Container vessel of between 1,000-1,999 teu.
Handy, tank: Crude oil tanker, product tanker or chemical tanker of between 10,000 and 25,000 dwt.
Handymax, dry cargo: Dry bulk carrier of between approximately 40,000 and 60,000 dwt.
Handysize, dry cargo: Dry bulk carrier of between approximately 10,000 and 40,000 dwt.
Head-haul: The leg of a trade route that has the highest container volumes is often called ’head-haul, whereas the return leg is often referred to as ‘back-haul’. On routes where there is a great trading volume mismatch between head-haul and back-haul, the head-haul demand will most often determine the freight rate level.
IEA: International Energy Agency. A subsidiary of the OECD. www.iea.org
IHS Global Insight: American economic consulting company. www.globalinsight.com
IMO: International Maritime Organization. An organisation under the UN.
IMO I-III: Quality grades for tankers for the permission to transport different chemical and oil products. IMO I are the most hazardous products, IMO III the least hazardous.
Inorganic chemicals: A combination of chemical elements not containing carbon. The three most common inorganic chemicals are phosporic acid, sulphuric acid and caustic soda. Phosphoric acid and sulphuric acid are used in the fertilizer industry, whilst caustic soda is used in the aluminium industry. As these chemicals are corrosive to many metals, they are transported in stainless steel tanks.
Intermediate: Medium-sized chemical carrier with a capacity of between 10,000 and 20,000 dwt.
LGC: Large Gas Carrier. LPG ship with a capacity of between 40,000 and 60,000 Cu.M.
LPG vessels: Liquefied Petroleum Gas. Vessels used to transport ammonia and liquid gases (ethane, ethylene, propane, propylene, butane, butylenes, isobutene and isobutylene). The gases are transported under pressure and/or refrigerated.
LR1, product tanker: Long Range 1. Product tanker with the maximum dimensions for passing through the Panama Canal (width of 32.21 metres and length of 289.5 metres) of approximately 60,000-74,999 dwt.
LR2, product tanker: Long Range 2. Product tanker too large to pass through the Panama Canal and larger than approximately 75,000 dwt.
Medium, tanker (MR): Medium Range. Product tanker of between 10,000 and 60,000 dwt.
MGC: Medium Gas Carrier. LPG ship with a capacity of between 20,000 and 40,000 Cu.M.
Multi-Purpose: Dry bulk carrier with multiple applications, mainly as a feeder vessel or for special cargo.
Nautical Mile: Distance unit measure of 1,852 meters, or 6,076.12 ft.
Offshore vessel: Vessel serving the offshore oil industry.
OPEC: Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries.
Organic chemicals: Contain carbon and are also referred to as petrochemicals. Are used to produce virtually all products made from plastics or artificial fibres.
Panamax, container: Container carrier with the maximum dimensions for passing through the Panama Canal (width of 32.21 metres, length of 291 metres) of approximately 3,000—5,100 teu.
Panamax, tanker: Crude oil tanker or product tanker with the maximum dimensions for passing through the Panama Canal (width of 32.21 metres and length of 289.5 metres) of approximately 60,000—79,999 dwt.
Panamax, dry cargo: Dry bulk vessel with the maximum dimensions for passing through the Panama Canal (width of 32.21 metres and length of 289.5 metres) of approximately 60,000—100,000 dwt.
Post-Panamax: Container vessel of approximately 5,100-9,999 teu that is too large to pass through the Panama Canal.
Product tanker: Tanker vessel with coated tanks used to transport refined oil products.
PSV: Platform Supply Vessel. Offshore vessel serving the offshore oil installations.
Refinery turnarounds: A planned, periodic shut down (total or partial) of a refinery process unit or plant to perform maintenance, overhaul and repair operations and to inspect, test and replace process materials and equipment.
Ro-Ro: Roll On – Roll Off. Common description of vessels on which the cargo is rolled on board and ashore.
Short sea: Refers to trading routes shorter than 3,000 nautical miles.
Short Sea, chemical: Chemical tanker smaller than 10,000 dwt.
Small gas carrier: LPG ship smaller than 20,000 Cu.M.
SSY: Simpson Spence & Young, British ship brokering and research company. www.ssy.co.uk
Sub-Panamax Container vessel of approximately 2,000-2,999 teu.
Suezmax: Crude oil tanker with the maximum dimensions for passing through the Suez Canal (approximately 120,000—199,999 dwt.).
Super Post-Panamax: Newest type of container vessel of approximately +10,000 teu.
TCE: Time Charter Equivalent.
Teu: Twenty Foot Equivalent Unit. Container with a length of 20 feet (about 6 metres) which forms the basis of describing the capacity of a container vessel.
Teu-knots: Unit of measure that takes account of the speed of ships when estimating the actual supply of ships within a segment.
Teu-nautical mile: Unit of measure indicating the volume of cargo, measured in teu, and how far it has been transported, measured in nautical miles.
Ton-nautical mile: Unit of measure indicating the volume of cargo, measured in ton, and how far it has been transported, measured in nautical miles.
Tonnage: Synonymous with “vessel”.
Town gas: A mixture of gases produced by the distillation of bituminous coal and used for heating and lighting: consists mainly of hydrogen, methane, and carbon monoxide.
ULCC: Ultra Large Crude Carrier. Crude oil tanker of more than 320,000 dwt.
Vegetable oils: Oils derived from seeds of plants and used for both edible and industrial purposes.
VLCC: Very Large Crude Carrier. Crude oil tanker of between approximately 200,000 and 320,000 dwt.
VLGC: Very Large Gas Carrier. LPG ship with a capacity of more than 60,000 Cu.M